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     jkpo; ehl;by; tuyhw;Wr;rpwg;G tha;e;f efuq;fSs; jUkGupAk; xd;whFk;. fp.gp. 17Mk; E}w;whz;L tiu jUkGup jf^u; vd;Nw miof;fg;gl;L te;jJ.

     rq;f fhyj;jpy; ghlg;gl;l xU E}Yf;Fj; jf^u; ahj;jpiu vd;w ngaNu cs;sJ. jf^upd; rpwg;igg; GwehD}W Nghw;WfpwJ. Rq;f fhyj;jpw;Fg; gpd;du; jf^u; Fwpj;Jg; gy fy;ntl;Lfspy; ghu;f;fpNwhk;.

     jf^u; vd;w ngau; ehl;bd; ngauhfTk; Cupd; ngauhfTk; ,Ue;Js;sJ. Fy;ntl;fypy; jf^u; ehl;Lj; jf^u; vd;w tupfisf; fhz KbSk;. Ehl;bd; ngaUk;> fiy efuj;jpd; ngaUk;jf^u; vd;Nw toq;fg;gl;lJ Gwpg;gplj; jf;fjhFk;.1

vy;iy

     jf^u; ehl;bd; vy;iy fhyj;jpw;Ff; fhyk; khWgl;bUe;jhYk; nghJthff; nfhq;F ehl;bd; fpof;fpYk; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ vdyhk;.2 jf^u; Cupy; mjpakhd; Nfhl;il> mjfg;ghb Nghd;w Cu;fs; mlq;fp apUe;jd. gpw;fhyj;jpy; jf^u; Cupd; vy;iyAk; khWfpd;wd.

     jUkGup khtl;lj;jpd; ngUk; gFjpAk;> tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lj;jpd; xU gFjpAk;> Me;jpu khepyj;jpd; kpfr; rpwpa gFjpAk; nfhz;ljhfj; jf^u; khWfpwJ. jf^u; Cupd; vy;iyAk; RUq;FfpwJ. mjpakhd; Nfhl;il> mjfg;ghb Nghd;w Cu;fs; jdp Cu;fshf khWfpd;wd. ,d;W ehk; miof;Fk; gioa jUkGupNa jf^uhf md;W tpsq;fpaJ vdyhk;. vdpDk; jf^u; Cupd; vy;iyiar; rupahf tiuaWf;f ,aytpy;iy.

     kPz;Lk;> nehsk;gu; fhyj;jpy; nehsk;gghbapd; xUgFjpahfj; jf^u; ehL khWfpwJ.3 gpd;du; Nrhou; fhyj;jpy; epfpupypr; Nrho kz;lyj;jpy; xU gFjpahfj; jf^u; ehL mikfpwJ. rq;f fhyj;jpw;Fg; gpd;du; jf^iuf; fq;fu; Mz;ljhy; jf^u;ehL> fq;f ehL vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;lJ. fq;fu;fs; Kj;jiuau; vd;Wk; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;.

     ,jd; fhuzkhff; fp.gp. 5Mk; E}w;whz;L Kjw; nfhz;L nehsk;gu; fhyk; tiu mjhtJ> fp.gp. 10 Mk; E}w;whz;L tiu jf^u;ehL vd;w ngaUld; fq;fehL miof;fg;gl;lJ.

     gpw;fhyr; Nrhou; fhyj;jpy; epfpupypr; Nrho kz;lyj;J jf^u; ehl;Lj; jf^u; vd;W miof;fg; gl;lik ghu;f;fpNwhk;.4 epfpupypr; Nrho kz;lKk; Kbnfhz;l Nrhokz;lykhf khWfpwJ. ,,Wjpahf tp[aefug; Nguuru; fhyj;jpy; re;jpufpup uh[;[paj;jpy; jf^u; ehL tUfpwJ. ,f;fhyj;jpYk; jf^u; ehl;Lj; jf^u; vd;Nw fy;ntl;Lfs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

     fp.gp. 17 Mk; E}w;whz;lstpy; jf^u;> jUkG vdg; ngau; khw;wk; ngWfpwJ.5 gpd;du; jf^u; ngau; kiwe;J jUkGupNa epiyj;Jtpl;lJ. jf^u; jUkGup> kl;Lkpd;wp NtW ngau;fSk; ,t;T+Uf; fpUe;Js;sd. mtw;iw tpupthfg; gpd;du;fhz;Nghk;. ,dp> rq;ffhyj; jf^iug; ghu;g;Nghk;.


rq;f fhyKk; jf^Uk;

     rq;f fhyj;jpy; jUkGup> jf^u; vd toq;fg;gl;lJ. jf^u; vd;w nrhy;Yf;Fg; gyu; gytpjkhfg; nghUs; Fwpg;gpbDk; G+tpjo; vd;w nrhy; nghUj;jkhf cs;sJ. jQ;ir khtl;lj;jpy; jfl;^u; vd;w ngaupy; xu; Cu; cs;sJ. jf^u; ehl;ilr; rq;ffhyj;jpy; mjpakhd;fs; my;yJ rj;jpaGj;jpuu;fs; murhz;Ls;shu;fs;. mjpakhd;fis Ntspu; vd;Wk;> Ntw;W ehl;bypUe;J Fb ngau;e;jtu; vd;Wk; mwpQu;fs; gythW $Wthu;fs;. ,k; kugpy; te;j xUtNd jkpo; ehl;bw;Ff; fUk;ig mwpKfg; gLj;jpatd; vdg; GwehD}W Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

     mjpakhd;fs;> gdk;G+ khiyiar; #batu;fs;. Nruu;fSk; gdk;G+ khiyiar; #batu;fNsahtu;. jpUKbf;fhup NghyNt mjpakhDk; kotu;Fbiar; Nru;e;jtNdahthd;. tuyhw;whrpupau;fSk;> rq;f E}w;fSk;> gpw;fhy viu E}w;fSk; mjpakhd;fisf; FWepy kd;du;fshfNt Fwpg;gpbDk; cz;ikapy; mjpakhd;fs; Nguuru;fs; vd;Nw Jzpayhk;. khkd;dd; mNrhfd;> Nru> Nrho>ghz;baiuf; Fwpg; gpLk;NghJ rj;jpa Gj;jpuiuAk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shd;. NtW ve;jj; jkpo; ehl;Lf; FWepy kd;didAk; mNrhfd; Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.

     mjpakhd;fs; Mz;lJ Nghy; NtW FW epy kd;du;fs; ngUepyg; gug;ig Mz;ljhff; $wKbahJ. MfNtmjpakhd; kugpdu; KbAilNte;juhf ,y;yhtpbDk; Nguuru; vd;Nw ehk; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.


mjpakhd; kd;du;fs;

rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; %yk; fPo;f;fz;l mjpakhd; kd;du;fspd; ngau;fisf; fhz;fpNwhk;. 1. mjpakhd; neLkply; 2. mjpakhd; neLkhd; mQ;rp 3. mjpakhd; nghFl;nlopdp 4. mjpakhd; mQ;rp 5. vopdp

mQrp> vopdp vd;w nrhw;fs; gl;lg; ngau;fshf ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;. Nruu;fs; Fl;Ltd;> nghiwad; vdg; ngau; itj;Jf; nfhz;lik ehkwpNthk;.

mjpakhd; neLkply;

     Nrhod; ,sQ;Nrl;nrd;dp> Nrud; ehu;Kbr; Nruy;> ghz;bad; gRk;G+z; ghz;bad; MfpNahu; rk fhyj;jtu; Mtu;. NruDf;Fk; neLkplYf;Fk; gif ,Ue;Js;sJ. Nrupdplk; Njhw;w gpd; gRk;G+z; ghz;badpd; gilj; jiytdhf neLkply; khWfpwhd;. fhg;gpahw;Wf; fhg;gpadhu;> ehu;Kbr; Nruy; mjpakhd; neLkpliyg; Nghupy; rha;j;jjhfg; gjpw;Wg;gj;jpy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;.

mjpakhd; neLkhd; mQ;rp

v filNaO ts;sy;fspy; xUtd; fpilj;jw;fupa ney;ypf;fdp jkf;Ff; fpilj;jNghJ jhDk; cz;zhky;> jd; JiztpahUf;Fk; juhky;> mUik kfDf;Fk; toq;fhky;> jkpo; nkhop kPJ nfhz;l fhjyhy; mt;itahUf;F

ePykzpkplw;wd;Nghy kd;Df ngUk tho;ehs;

vd thahu tho;j;Jg;gh ngw;wtd;

,tid mt;itahu; gy ghly;fspy; Gfo;e;Js;shu;. ,td; vghUl;Lj; njhz;ilkhdplk; murpay; J}Jk; nrd;Ws;shu;. guzu;> nghd;Kbahu;> ngUq;Fd; W}u;f;fpohu; Nghd;NwhUk; ,k; kd;didg; ghbAs;sdu;. ngUQ; rpj;jpudhu;> kh%ydhu;> ey;Y}u; ej;jj;jdhu; MfpNahUk; ,tidg; Nghw;wp cs;sdu;.

mjpakhDk; jpUKbf;fhupAk;

     mjpakhd; neLkhd; mQ;rpf;Fk; jpUf;NfhapY}u; jpUKbf;fhupf;Fk; gifik ,Ue;Js;sJ. mjpakhd; jpUf;NfhapY}u;tiu gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;W fhupiaj; Njhw;fbj;jhd; vd mt;itahu; Fwpg;gpLthu;.

     jpUf;NfhapY}u; mUfpy; [k;ig vDk; Cupy; fpilj;Js;s gpuhkp fy;ntl;L mjpahkhd; neLkhd; mQ;rpapDilajhFk;. ,f; fy;ntl;Lk;

Kuz;kpF rpwg;gpd; NfhtY}u; E}wpepd; muz;L jpfpup Nae;jpa NjhNs

vd;w rq;fg; ghlYk; mjpakhdpd; tPuj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. Nghupy; Njhw;wfhup NruDld; Nru;e;J nfhs;fpwhd;. mjpakhdpd; ez;gDk; Nru kd;ddpd; giftDkhd nfhy;ypkiy xup kPJ gilnaLf; fpwhd;. xupiaf; nfhd;W nfhy;ypkiyiar; NruDf;F toq;Ffpwhd;.

mjpakhDk; NruDk;

     Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd; Ml;rp Gupe;jNghJ jf^u; ehl;bd;kPJ gilnaLf;fpwhd;. vjpu;j;Jg; NghupL thupd;wpj; jpUk;Gfpwhd;. Nghu;j; je;jpuk; fUjp neLkhd; mQ;rp Nghuplhky; ,Ue;jhd; NghYk;. vdpDk; ngUQ;Nruy; ,k;nghiw kd;ddhy; mjpakhd; Njhw;fbf;fg; gLfpwhd;. ,jidf;

jf^u; vwpe;J nehr;rp je; nja;jpa mUe;jpwy; xs;spirg; ngUQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw

vdg; gjpw;Wg; gj;J gjpfk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

     ePu;$upy; ntd;wJ kl;Lkpd;wpr; Nrud; jf^u; Nfhl;ilia mopf;fj; jf^u;tiu tUfpwhd; mq;Fg; Nghu; fLikahf eilngWfpwJ. je;ij mjpakhidg; Nghy tPuk; nrwpe;j vopdp Nghupy; gq;F Nfhz;L tPukuzk; va;Jfpwh. jf^u; Nfhl;il jiu kl;lkhf;fg;gLfpwJ. gpd; jf^u; Nru murhl; rpapd;fPo; tUfpwJ. jf^u; te;J ntw;wp ngw;wjd; epidthf> jf^u; vwpe;j ngUQ;Nruy; vDk; milnkhopiar; Nrud; ngWfpwhd;. jf^u; mUNf ,Ue;j xU kiy Nru miuad; kiy MfpwJ. mJNt ,d;W Nru;tuhad; kiy vd toq;fg; ngWfpwJ.

     neLkhd; mQ;rp ,we;j gpd; mt;itahu; fz;zPu; tpl;L ghba ghly;fs; mQ;rpapd; Gfiog; giw rhw;Wfpd;wd. eLfy;yhf mQ;rp khwpa gpd;>

nfhLau; gpwq;Fkiy nfoP,a ehLld; nfhLg;gTk; nfhs;sh Njhd;.

Mfpa mQrpf;Fg; gilay; je;jhy; Vw;gNdh? khl;lhd; vd;W ghLfpwhu;. GwehD}W kl;Lkpd;wp jf^u; ahj;jpiuAk; mjpakhd; Gfiof; Fwpg; gpLfd;wJ.

vopdp

     mjpakhd; kfd; nghFl;nlopdp je;ijiag; NghyNt tPuk; kpf;ftd;. ,td; gpwe;jNghJ mjpakh Nghu;f; fsj;jpy; ,Ue;jjhy; Nghu;f;fs cilAlNd jk; kfid te;J ghu;j;jjhf mt;itahu; Fwpg;gpLthu;. mjpakhd; jf^iu Mz;lNghJ jf^u; mUfpy; cs;s Fjpiu kiyapy; ,Ue;J nghFl;nlopdp murhz;Ls;shd;. Nrud; jf^u; Nfhl;ilia Kw;Wifapl;lNghJ vjpu;j;Jg; Nghupl;L khz;Ls;shd;. vopdpf;Fg; gpd;du; rpy fhyk; jf^u; ehL khw;wu; trj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ.

     vdpDk; FWepy kd;du; vd;w mstpy; jf%upYk; ehkf;fy;ypYk; ,k; kugpdu; gpw;fhyj;jpy; murhl;rp Gupe;Js;sdu;. ,dp kotu;fs; Fwpj;J RUf;fkhff; fhz;Nghk;.

kotu;fs;

     rq;f fhy kf;fs; ,dj;jtUs; kotu; xU gpuptpduhtu;. ,tu;fs; jf^u; cs;spl;l gFjpfspy; tho;e;jhu;fs;. mjpahkhd;fs; ,g; gpuptpdNuahthu;fs;. kiy #o;e;j gFjpfspy; tho;e;jtu; Mjyhy; kiytu; vd toq;fg;gl;L> mtu;fNs gpd;du; kotuhapdu; vd;gu; rpyu;. rpwe;j Nghu; kwtu;fshf ,tu;fs; tpsq;fpahjhy; kwtu;fs; vd toq;fg;gl;Lg; gpd; kotu;fs; Mdhu;fs; vd;gu; NtW rpyu;. jpU. tP. ,uhk%u;j;jp khyj; jPTfspy; tho;e;j kf;fs; (kioj;jPT vd Kd;du; toq;fg;gl;lJ) kotu;fspd; %jhijau; vd;W $Wfpwhu;. ,e;j kioj; jPT kythu; my;yJ kyghu; xl;b ,Ue;Js;sJ. ,k; kioj;jPT kf;fNs nfhq;F ehl;bYk; jf^upYk; FbNawpatu;fs; vd;fpwhu; mtu;. NkYk;> ePuf ,Uf;if Mop#l;ba epd; Kd;Ndhu; vd;w mt;itahupd; ghliyr; rhd;whff; nfhs;fpwhu;.

     Ma;thsu; rpyu; tl ehl;by; cs;s khstj;Jld; kotu;fisj; njhlu;GgLj;jp mq;fpUe;J te;jjhff; $Wfpwhu;fs;. Mapd; ko vd;w nrhy; ,sik vd;w nghUs; Fwpf;fpwJ. ,sq;fd;W gakwpahJ vd;gJNghy; t{uk; nrwpe;jtu;fs; vd;gij czu;j;jNt kotu; vd mioj;jjhf ehk; fUJtNj Vw;Gilj;jhFk;.

     ,k; kotu;fs; rpwe;j Fjpiug; gilfis itj;jpUe;j Fjpiu kwtu;fs; vd;gij> cUtf; Fjpiu kotu; xl;ba vd;w njhu; tpsf;FfpwJ>

     nfhy;yp kiyia Mz;l xup> jpUf;NfhapY}iuj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L Nrjp ehl;il Mz;l fhup MfpNahUk; kotu;fNs ahtu;. fp.gp. gj;jhk; E}w;whz;by; rpthyaj; njhz;L Gupe;j nrk;gpad; khNtp kotu; Fbiar; Nru;e;jtu; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj; jf;fJ. kotu;fSld; njhlu;Gila koghb vd;w jpUkoghbia

     (vJ vg;gbapUg;gpDk;) jkpofj;jpy; goq;Fbfspy; kotu;fs; Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftu;fs; vdyhk;. ,k; kotu;fs; nfhq;Fg; gFjpapYk; jf^u; ehl;bYk; ,Ue;jhYk; nfhq;fu;fspypUe;J NtWgl;ltu;fs; vd;gijAk; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. nfhq;fu;fNs ,d;iwa ehl;Lf; fTz;lu; vd ,uhk%u;j;jp fUJfpwhu;. kotu; vd;w gpuptpdu; goe; jkpo; ehl;by; ,Ue;j goq;Fbapdu; vd;W mUzhryf; fTz;lu; fUJfpwhu;.

jf^u; tUzid

     rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; jf^iuAk; mjpakhd; neLkhd; mQ;rpiaAk; ngupJk; Nghw;Wfpd;wd. ehifahu;> mQ;rpapd; mj;ij kfshfr; rpyu; fUJtu;.

     mjpakhd;ehL> cz;Zk; ePu;j; Jiwapy; kiy kyu; mzpnra;Ak; jiyePu; ehlhFk;. FYq;Fk; tsKila Fjpiukiy mtDilajhFk;. kwNthUk; kd;wj;jpy; $b tpohntLg;gu;. kd;wnky;yhk; kzk; fkOk;. kd;wnkhj;J neLkid Kw;wk; epiwe;J topAk;. Mu;tyu;FQfpd; my;yJ khw;wuru; fdtpYk; FWfh fbAil tpaefu;. jf^upy; kiyf; $l;lnkhj;j khlq;fs; epiwe;jpUf;Fk;. cile;j tisay; xj;J ntz;fhe;jl; G+ kyUk; ky;ypifapd; kzk; fkOk;. Ntq;if kyu;e;J kz%l;Lk;. Ntok; Nky; vLj;j vtw;wpf; nfhbnad cau;e;J Njhd;wp ,opjUk;. mUtpfspd; tsf; fhl;rp tpUe;jspf;Fk;. jf^u; kiyg;gFjpfspy; nja;tg;ngz;fs; tho;e; jpUg;gu;. fd;nwhL $ba gRf;$l;lq;fs; Vjkpd;wpf; fhl;bNy thoyhk;. nfhba ghiyepyj;jpy; tUk; topg;Nghf;fu; Ntz;ba ,lj;jpy; jq;fyhk;. fdk; kype;j ney;kzpf;Ftpay;fs; fhtypd;wpf; fplf;Fk;. Mepiuf;fhf;Fk; mz;zyhd mjpad; rpwpa fs; fpilj; jhy; GytUf;F toq;fptpLk; ,ay;Gs;std;. ngupafs; cs;sNghJ GytUila ghrp Ailia ePf;fp tpl;Lg; Gj;jhil toq;F kpay;Gilatd;. vts;sp ntz;fyj;jpy; fwp NrhW tq;Fthd;. xU ehspy; vl;Lj; Njiur; nra;Nthu; xU jpq;fspy; $br; nra;j Nju;f;fhiy xj;jtd;.

     jz;zPupy; ahidia tPo;j;Jk; KjiyNghd;W fhyk; ,lkwpe;J gifia nty;gtd;. jPf;filf; Nfhy;Nghy; fd;dhw;wiy mlf;fpj; Njhd;whjpUf; fTk; ty;yd;. mtd; gilf;fyq;fs; Gjpjhf ,d;wp nfhy;yd; ciyf; fsj;jpy; fple;j tz;zkpUf;Fk;. me;Njh! thup toq;fpa ts;sy; khz;ljhy; Gytu;fs; vj;jF NtjidAw;whul;fNsh?

jf^Uk; NrhoUk;

     mjpakhd; tPo;r;rpaile;j gpd; Nruu; jf^iu Mz;lNghJ gpl;ld; nfhw;wd; ,g; gFjpapy; murhz;Ls;shd;. Nrudpd; gilj;jiytd; ,td;.

     rq;f fhyj;jpd; ,Wjpf; fhyj;jpy; fsg;gpuu; Eiotjw;F Kd;du; jf^u; ehL Nruu; gpbapypUe;J ePq;fpr; Nrhou; gpbapy; ,Ue;Js;sjhfj; njupfpwJ.

     Nfhr;nrq;fzhd; vd;Dk; Nrhod;> Nrud; fizf;fhypUk; nghiwiaj; Njhw;fbj;Jr; rpiwapy; itj;jik Nehf;fpAk;> jUkGupapy; Nfhr;nrq; fz;zP];tuk; vd;w Nfhtpy; fy;ntl;by; ,Ug;gij Nehf;fpAk; ,f; fUj;J Njhd;WfpwJ. Nfhr;nrq; fz;zP];tuk; NFhapiyg; gw;wpg; gpd;du; tpupthff; fhz;Nghk;.

jfL&k; Ntw;W ehl;ltUk;

     rq;f fhyj;jpw;Fg;gpd; fsg;gpuu; vd;w $l;lj;jtu; jkpo; ehl;by; Eioe;Js;sdu;. jpUg;gjpkiyia nahl;bapUe;jtu; njhz;il ehl;bw;Fk; fUehl fhitnahl;bapUe;jtu; jf^u; topahfr; Nrhoghz;ba ehl;bw;Fk; nrd;Ws;sdu;. jtpu jf^iu xl;bAs;s nkhop ngau; Njaj;jpy; fl;b vd;w kd;du; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;Js;sdu;. fq;fu;> ghzu; Nghd;w kd;du;fSk; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jijg; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. ,tu;fSk; jf^iuaile;J FWepy muRfis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;.

     fsg;gpuiu tPo;j;jpa gy;ytu; njhz;il ehl;by; fhY}d;wpa gpd; jf^u; ehl;bYk; Mjpf;fk; nrYj;j Kw;gLfpd;wdu;.

     nehsk;gu; vd;w kugpdu; jf^iuf; ifg;gw;Wk; tiu rpw;wuru; gyu; jf^u; ehl;il Mz;Ls;sdu;. jq;fSf;Fs; xahJ Nghupl;Ls;sdu;. ,g;Nghu; fisf; Fwpg;gpLk; E}w;Wf; fzf;fhd eLfw;fisj; jUkGup khtl;lj;jpy; ghu;f;fpNwhk;.

     fl;b kugpy; te;jtu;fspy; fl;liz gUkd; Fwpg;gplj; jf;ftdhthd;. fq;fu;fspy; =GU~d;> rptkhwd; MfpNahu; rpwe;jtu;fs; vdyhk; ghzu; fspy; khtyp thzhjpuhau; Fwpg;gplj; jf;ftu; vdyhk;. ,tu;fs; jrfSf;Fs; Nghupl;Lf; nfhz;lJld; rpy rkak; gy;ytg; NguuRlDk; Nkhjp cs;sdu;. rpk;ktp~;Z kd;dDld; NfhT+u; ehl;ilahz;l msg;ig fq;fjp miuau; Nghupl;Ls;shu;.

jf^upy; tho;e;j flikg; gw;Ws;s tPud;

     fp.gp. 8 Mk; E}w;whz;lstpy; mupkpija thzhjpuhad; vd;gtd; jf^u; ehl;il Mz;L te;jhd;. Esk;gd; vd;gtd; thzhjpuhaDld; njhlu;G nfhz;lhd;. el;GwT nfhz;l mtd; jf^u; ehl;il tQ;rpj;Jf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lhd;. mr;rkak; thzhjpuhad; Njtp fUTw;wpUe;jhs;. mtisg; ghJfhg;ghd xu; ,lj;jpy; itj;jpUe;J Foe;ij ngWk; tiu rq;fuf; Fl;bahu; vd;gtu; fhg;ghw;wp cs;shu;. gpd; Esk;gidj; Njhw;fbj;Jj; jf^iuf; ifg;gw;Wfpwhu;. ,ijf; $Wk; fyntl;L tUkhW:

Rt];jp= mupkpija khtyp thzuhau; fq;fehLk;> GwkiyehLk;> NFhapD}u;ehLk; NfhT+u;ehLk;> jhaD}u; ehLk;> gw;wehLk; Ms

mtu;f;F jhd; Mfpgps;is nfhz;L cs; GFe;J tQ;rpj;J ehL nfhz;lhd; Esk;gd;.

mtd;Nghupy; fUg;gpzp mUsuhf mtisf; fhj;jpUe;J Mz;gps;is ngWtJk; jf^u; GFe;J Esk;gd; gyj;NjhNl Jzpe;J ehLghtpdhu; rq;fuf; Fl;bahu; mtNuhL cld; GFe;J jf^upy; kPl;lhr; ehfe;ij rq;fuf; Fl;bahu; fy;ehL

     Nghupy; Esk;gidr;rq;fuf; Fl;bahu; Njhw; fbf;fpwhu;. ,g; Nghupy; rq;fuf; Fl;bahu; Nrtfd; ehfe;ij ,we;JgLfpwhd;. ,tDf;Fr; rq;fuf; Fl;bahNu eLfy; vLg;gpf;fpwhu;. vdpDk; kPz;Lk; nehsk;gNu jf^iuf; ifg;gw;wpg; gy Mz;Lfs; Mz;likia tuyhw;wpy; ghu;f;fpNwhk;;.

     ,d;iwf;F 1200 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; ghythb vd ,d;wiof;fg;gLk; gFjpia Mz;l giwfspdpahu;> jf^u;g; gilAld; Nkhjp capu; ePj;Js;shu;. mtUf;fhf vLf;fg;gl;l eLfy; ghythbapy; ,d;W Ks;sJ. mf;fhy fl;lj;jpy; jf^u; ehL VOehLfshf ,Ue;Js;sd. gpd;du; 9 ehLfshf khWfpd;wd. jf^u; ehL fq;fehL vd;Wk; toq;fg; glLs;sJ.

tz;z tUkd;

    mfehD}w;wpy;>L mjpad; tpz;zj;jd; vd;w Gytu; xU ghliyg; ghb cs;shu;. fp.gp. Ie;jhk; E}w;whz;L ,Usg;gl;b vy;yJ ghg;gk;ghb eLfy; %yk; tpira tpz;z tu;kd; xUtidf; fhz;fpNwhk;.

     Nfhtpira tpz;z gUkw;F ehd;fhtJ jf ^U ehlhSk; fq;fiurU Nky; te;j jz;lj; NjhL vwpe;j gl;l thz ngU kiurU

     Nfhtpir tpz;z tUkUila ehd;fhtJ Ml;rpahz;by; jf^iuahSk; fq;f muru; jk;kPJ gilNahL te;jtiu vjpu;j;jhu;. mg; Nghupy;ghz murd;khz;lhd;. mtDf;fhf ,e;eLfy; vLf;fg;gl;lJ.

     mfehD}w;Wg; ghliy vOjpa mjpad; tpz;zj;jtDk; tpira tpz;z gUkUk; xUtuhf ,Uf;fyhk;. ahg;gUq;fyk; goir tpz;zd; vd;ghidf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ mtNd ,td; NghYk;> kw;nwhU eLfy; tpz;zg;NgNu dhjpiaf; Fwpg;gpL fpwJ. rq;fu;> rq;f E}w;fspNyNa ,lk; ngw;Ws;sdu;. 1 thzgUk 2 miurU Nr 3 tfd; co 4 KZfd; kf 5 d; tpra k 6 q;fy khz; 7 l tpz;z Ng 8 Nudhjp fy; 9 tpz;zg; NgNu 10 dhjp Nrtfd; 11 nfhw;we;ij Nfhl 12 d; fy;

     fy;ntl;by; ghz murUila Nrtfd; coKZfd; kfd; Mz;l gFjpAk; mtDila Nrtfd; nfhw;we;ij ngaUk; fy;ntl;by; ghu;f; fpNyhk;. tpz;zg; Ngu; vd;gJ ngau; Vdhjp gl;lg; ngau; ,tDila Nrtfu; nfhw;we;ij Nfhld;. ghzUk; rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ,lk; ngw;Ws;sdu;. Mff;fq;fu;> ghzu;. mjpau; Mfpa %d;W kuigAk; ,Usg;gl;b eLfw;fs; Fwpg;gpL fpd;wd vdyhk;.

     Kjy; kNfe;jputu;kDila 14 Mk; Ml;rpahz;L> nkhz;L Fop fy;ntl;L %yk; gy;ytUf;Ff; fPo;g; gl;l kd;duhf mjpif khd; kugpdu; fp.gp. 6 Mk; E}w;whz;by; ,Ue;jikia mwpfpNwhk;. fbfhtpd; mQrpdhU vd;gtupd; gf;fs; nghd;NkhjdhUk; tPuthz;zuY}u; kf;fs; nghd;NkhjdhUk; Nghupl> Nghupy; mjpif khd; kugpdd; ,we;J gl;Ls;shd;.

     fbfhtpd; vd;w nrhy; fba fhtiy cila my;yJ fhty; kpf;f NrhiyAila ehl;bd; jiytd; vd;W nghUd; nfhs;syhk;. rq;f E}w;fs; tUzpf;Fk; mjpakhDld; ,r; nrhy;iy xg;gpl;L kfpoyhk;. NkYk; nghw; NfhtiuU vd;w; mjpifkhd; kugpdd; nfhw;w kq;fyk; vd;w gFjpia (Gwkiy ehl;bd; xU gFjp) Mz;L te;Js;shd;. ,tDila Nrtfu; GspfshYk; NjUzp rhj;jdhUk; Nkw;fz;l Nghupy; nghd;khjdhUld; Nghupl;L khz;Ls;shu;. Nghu; eupg;gs;spapy; eil ngw;Ws;sJ. mjpifkhd; kugpdd; thz murUld; nrd;W Nghupl;Ls;shd;.

     fp.gp. 8Mk; E}w;whz;lstpy; khtyp thzuhau; fq;f ehlhd> mjhtJ rptkhwDila 22Mk; Ml;rpahz;by; jf^iu Nehf;fp ,e;jpud; (,,uh~:bu$l kd;dd; ,e;jputu;kdhf ,Uf;fyhk;) gil naLj;Jtu> fz;zD}u;j; jiytdhd fkpaj;jokd; Nghupy; ,we;jij Cj;jq;fiu tl;lk; xl;lg;gl;b eLfy; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

     rptkhw tu;kUila Ml;rpapy; fq;fehL thzu; fshy; Msg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jr; rptkhwd; fl;b kugpidr; Nru;e;jtdhf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,uhl;bu;$lu; fp.gp. 925Yk; mjhtJ tPu Esk;gDila Ml;rpapy; gRf; $l;lq;fisf; ftu;e;Jnry;y Kad;wNghJ Nghu; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. ,uh~;bu$liu ty;ytiua ehl;lhu; vd;W fy;ntl;Lf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. Nkw;fz;l fy;ntl;L m&u; tl;lk; Kj;jhD}u; nghd;Ndupapy; cs;sJ. Esk;gu; Ml;rpf;F tUk; tiu gy muRkuGfisj; jf^u; tuyhw;wpy; fhz;fpNwhk;. ,dp Esk;gu; tuyhw;iwf; fhz;Nghk;.

Esk;gUk; jf^Uk;

     ghzu;> fq;fu;> fl;b kugpdu; Nghd;Nwhu; jf^upy; gy;NtW gFjpfis Mz;bUg;gpDk; Esk;gu; tuyhW Nghy; njhlu;r;rpahf ,tu;fs; tuyhw;iwf; Fwpg;gpl Kbatpy;iy. Esk;gu; Nghy ngUk; gug;igahz;ljhfTk; Fwpg;gpl KBatpy;iy. jf^upy; Esk;gu; fl;ba Nfhapy;fs; Nghy ghzu;> fq;fu; Nghd;Nwhu; fl;bajhfTk; tuyhW ,y;iy.

     fp gp 873 968 tiu Mz;l Esk;gu; Kjypy; N`khtjpiaAk; gpd; jf^iuAk; jiyefukhff; nfhz;bUe;jdu;. Esk;gthb 32>000 vd mtu;fs; ehL miof;fg;gl;lJ. ,tu;fs; gy;ytu; Fyj;jpy; te;jtnud;Wk; $wpf; nfhs;Sthu;fs;. Esk;g gy;ytnud;Nw ,tu;fSf;Fg; ngaUz;L. Kjypy; fq;fu; fspd; fPo;g; gzp Gupe;jhu;fs;.

kNfe;jpu Esk;gd;

     ,td; Es;k;gu;fspy; Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftd;. mjpakhd; Nfhl;ilia kNfe;jpu kq;fykhf khw;wpatd;. ike;jP];tu Kilahu; Nfhapiy vOg;gpatd;. jf^upy; rkzf; NfhapYf;Fk; irtf; NfhapYf;Fk; jhdk; toq;fpAs;shd;. irt MrhupaUf;F kUjd; Vupapy; epyk; toq;fp cs;shd;. ,t;T+u; ,d;W kUNjup vd toq;fg;gLfpwJ. rkz Mrhupau; epjpaz;zd; kw;Wk; rz;baz;zd; ,UtUf;Fkhf n[apd g];jpahf %yg;gs;sp epyk; toq;fAs;shd;.n[apd Nfhapy; jw;NghJ,y;iy. Mapd; ,U rkzg; ngupNahu; cUtq;fs; nrJf;fpa rpw;gk; jUkGup re;ij Ngl;ilapypUe;J nfhz;Lte;J jf^u; mUq;fhs;rpafj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,r;rpw;gj;ij ,uhkf;fh> ,yl;Rkzf;fh vdg; ghku kf;fs; Fwpg;gpL thu;fs;. fyntl;by; tUk; rkz Mrhupau; ,Utu;> ,tu;fshfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. mt;thNwirt Mrhupau;> tUe;jhb mk;kd; Nfhapy; mUfpy; cs;s fw;rpw;gkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ghu;g;gjw;Fr; irtj; JwtpNghy ,t;TUtk; cs;sJ.

     kNfe;jpu Esk;gDf;Fg; gpd; gllj;jpw;F te;j maag;gj;Njtd; jd; je;ijiag; NghyNt rkzf; NfhapYf;F epyk; jhdkhf toq;fp cs;shd;. jkpo;> fd;dlk; ,uz;L nkhopfspYk; ,tDila fy; ntl;Lfs; cs;sd. gpd; md;da;ad; my;yJ tPu Esk;gDk; ,Wjpahf jpyPg;gurDk; Ms;fpd;wdu;. vdpDk; %d;whk; fpU~;zd; vdw jpwik tha;e;j kd;dd; te;j gpd;> Esk;gu; tPo;r;rp milfpd;wdu;. Nkiyf; fq;f kd;dd; ,uz;lhk; eurpk;kdplk; fp. gp. 974,y; Esk;gu; Njhw;wgpd; ,k; kuG nry;thf;fpoffpwJ. Esk;gu;fs; eputhf trjpf;fhf jk; ehl;ilg; gygpupTfshfg; gpupj;J murFyj;jtuhy; epu;tfpj;J te;jhu;fs;. ngz;fSk; mjpfhupfshf ,Ue;Js;shu;fs;. Esk;gu; fhyj;jpy; vLf;fg;gl;l rptd; Nfhapiyg; gpd;du; tpupthff; fhz;Nghk;.

jf^Uk; gpw;fhyr; NrhoUk;

     khkd;dd; ,uh[uh[d; gy;NtW ehLfis ntd;wnghJ jf^u; cs;spl;l Esk;gghbiaAk; ntd;whd;. ntd;wgpd; esk;g ghbiaj; jdpahf xU kz;lykhf;fpdhd;. gioa ngaUld; epfupypNrho kz;lyk; vd;Wk; ngapupl;lhd;. ,tDf;Fg; gpd;du; jf^u; Nrhou; Nguurpy; ,Ue;Js;sJ. ,uh[uh[d; ntspapl;l

     Nrhou; fhyj;jpy;> gy fy;ntl;Lfs; jf^u; ehl;by; ntl;lg;gl;Ls;sd. rpy eLfw;fshf ,Ug;gpDk; gy Nfhapy;fSf;F toq;fpa jhdj;ijf; Fwpg;gpL fpd;wd. %d;whk; FNyhj;Jq;fd;> %d;whk; ,uhruhrd; Nghd;Nwhu; fy;ntl;Lfs;> Nfhapy; jhdj;ijNa Rl;Lfpd;wd. Nrhou; fhyj;jpy; vLf;fg;gl;l ,uh[ uh[P];tuKilahu; Nfhapiyg; gw;gpSk; mtu;fs; fhyj;jpy; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;l gpw Nfhapy;fisg; gw;wpAk; gpwF fhz;Nghk;.

gpw;fhy mjpakhd;fSk; jf^Uk;

     rq;f fhyj;jpw;Fg; gpd;du; gy;ytu; fhyj;jpy; m;nfhd;Wk; ,q;nfhd;Wkhf mjpfhupfshf ,Ue;j mjpakhd;fs;> fp.gp. 8Mk; E}w;whz;lstpy; ehkf;fy;iyj; jiyik ,lkhff; nfhz;L> Nfhl;il fl;bf; nfhz;L murhl;rp Gupe;Js;sdu;. ,tu;fspy; Nrnkd; Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftd; Mthd;; Gfo;ngw;w Filtiuf; Nfhapy;fis ehkf;fy;ypy; mjpakhd; kugpdu; fl;bAs;sdu;. ghz;bau;fshy; ehkf;fy;ypy; Mz;l mjpakhd; Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lgpd; Nrhoupd;fPo; mjpfhupfshf khWfpd;wdu;. xUrpyu; muru; NghyNt jf^u; ehl;il Mz;Ls;sijf; fy;ntl;Lfs; njuptpf;fpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf ,uh[uh[ mjpifkhd; vd;w tpLfh jofpa ngUkhisf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,td; jf^u; kl;Lkd;wp tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lk; Ngh@u; tiu fpof;fpYk;> tl;bfk; tiu tlf;fpYk; (Me;jpuh) murhz;Ls;shd;. gy Nfhapy;fs; vLg; gpj;jJld; gioa Nfhapy;fisg; GJg;gpj;J kpUf;fpwhd;.

    mNjNghy; kw;nwhU mjpifkhd; mjpakhd; Nfhl;ilapypUe;Jehty; jhtsk; tiu 30 fhjq;fSf;Fr; rhiy Vw;gLj;jp> njhiyasTfw;fSk; epWtpAs;shd;. jUkGup mUNf Fs;sD}upy; 29Mk; vz;Zs;s njhiymsTfy; ,d;WKs;sJ. ,r;rhiyapd; ngau; mjpifkhd; ngUtopahFk;. ,t;tjpakhd;fs; fhyj;jpy; jf^u; tpLfhjofpa ey;Y}u; vd;Wk; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. m&uhfpa mupA+Uk; tpLfhjofpa ey;Y}u; vd toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ciukUTk; Fnyhj;jJq;f Nrho Njtu;f;F ciuj;jahz; bUgjpd; Nk ypuz;bw; ngz;izf; fiukUTQ; rpWNfhl;il Fsd;ehif ehafw; fspj;Jf; fw;wsp jd;Ngupl;lfhuida ifahd; jpiukUTe; jlq;fkyj; jfil kd;dd; nrOk;ghyp ngz;izj; jpUejp %d;Wila tpiukUTe; jhu;khu;gd; uh[uh[ tjpfd; tpyq;fhnkhop tpLfh jofpag; ngUkhNsa;

cs;q rpUj;jk;> ,uh[uh[ mjpidkhsps; Ml;rpg; gug;igAk; rptgf;jpiaAk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. tpyq;fh nkhop vd;w ngaUk; ekrptha ek vd;w njhlUk; xU fy;ntl;by; cs;sd.

     ,uh[uh[ mjpifkhd;> jfil kd;dd; vd;Nw toq;fg;gl;Ls;shd;. tpLfhjojpa ngUkhs; rkz rkaj;ijAk; Nghw;wp cs;shd;. Gs;spr; re;jkhf ntl;ba Fl;ilia Cj;jq;fiu ghiwf; fy;ntl;L Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

     tpLfhjofpa ngUkhs;> %d;whk; Fnyhj;Jq;fd 10Mk; Ml;rpahz;L Kjy; %d;whk; ,uh[uh[ Nrhod; 8Mk; Ml;rpahz;L tiu Mz;likiag; ghu;f;fpNwhk;>

     tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lk; Ngh@u; tl;lk; jpUkiyf; fy;ntl;L Nru tkprj;jpy; mjpifkhd; te;j jhff; $WfpwJ. jf^u; ahj;jpiu 7Mk; ghlYk; Nrudpd; jk;gpahf mjpaidf; Fwpg;gpLk;.

     Tpy;Yld; $ba murr; rpd;dk; Me;jpuhtpy; cs;s yl;bfk; ePyfz;NlRtuu; Nfhapypy; cs;sJ. ,uh[uh[ mjpfkhDk; rk;GtuhaUk; nra;J nfhz;l xg;ge;jf; fy;ntl;L xd;W tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lk; nrq;fj;jpy; cs;sJ. mf; fy;ntl;bd; %yk; fupfhy; Nrho MilA+u; ehlhs;thDk; nrq;Nfzp mk;ikag;gd; mj;jpky;yd; Mfpa tpf;fpukr; Nrho rk;GtuhaDk; mjpifkhDld; Nghu; cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz;ldu;. Mjpifkhd;> rPa fq;fd; vd;w nfhqF kd;dDlDk;> kfj kd;ddhfpa ghzDlDk; fhltuhatDlDk; gif nfhz;bUe;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.

     mf; fhyf; fl;lj;jpy; xU Fwepy kd;dd; ngUk; gug;ig Ml;rp Gupe;jJ tpLfhjofpa ngUkhNsahthd;.

     tpLfhjofpa ngUkhs; ngz;izahw;wq;fiuapd; rpWNfhl;ilapy; jd; ngaupy; Nfhapy; vLg;gpj;Js;shd;. Rpe;jy;ghb> rptdP];tu KilahUf;Fj; jhdk; toq;fp cs;shd;. thdpak;ghbapy; mjpjpNf];tuk; vd;w Nfhapiy vLg;gpj;Js;shd;. ,iwtd; ngau; tpLfhjofP];tuKilahuhFk;. NghSu; tl;lk; jpUkiyr; rkzf; NfhapYf;Fk; jhdk; toq;fp cs;shd;. Nfhapypy; jpUg;gzpAk; Gupe;Js;shd;. Fsnkhd;Wk; vLg;gpj;Js;shd; %d;whk; ,uh[uh[d; 7Mk; Ml;rpahz;L fy;ntl;bd;gb Cj;jq;fiu tl;lk; Mk;gs;spapy; tpLg;gpj;Js;shd;. ngz;Nz];tu klj;jpy; Nfhapypy; mjpifkhd; gps;isahu; vd;w gps;isahu; Nfhapy; cs;sJ. ,J ,uh[uh[ mjpifkhd; ngapupy; Vw;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhk;.

     jUkGup tdr; ruf mYtyfj;jpy; (jUkypq;fk; rhiyapy;) eLfy; rpw;gk; xd;Ws;sJ. ntz;nfhw;wf; FilAld; $ba ,r;rpw;gk;. fp.gp. 13Mk; E}w;whz;ilr; Nru;e;j uh[uh[ mjpifkhDila jhf ,Uf;fyhk;.

     tpLfhjofpa ngUkhs;> fk;ig ey;Y}u; vd ,d;W toq;fg;gLk; ehifak;gs;spapy; rptd; Nfhapy; Njhw;Wtj;jhd;. Gytu; ngUkf;fis Mjupj;jjhy; fhuida ifahd; vdg; Nghw;wg;gl;lhd;. Tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lk; jpUkiyapy; cs;s Fe;jit [Pdhyaj;jpy; ,tDila ghly; fy;ntl;L cs;sJ. tQrpau; Fygjp naOdp tFj;j tpaf;f rpaf;fpa NuhL vQ;rpa topT jpUj;jp Naz;Fz tpiw jpUkiy itj;jhd; mQ;rpjd; toptU ktd; topKjyp fyp mjpfdtd; tpQ;irau; jiyGid jifikau;fhtyd; tpLfh jofpa ngUkhNsa;

,td; khw;Wr; rkaj;ijAk; Nghw;wp cs;shd; ekrpthah vd;w ke;jpuj;jpy; ngUtpUg;gk; nfhz;bUe;jhd;.

     Nrq;fj;jpy; cs;s ,uz;L fy;ntl;Lfs; %yk; mjpau; rk;Gtuhau;> %d;wk; Fnyhj;Jq;fdplk; nra;j xg;ge;jk; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. Xd;wpy;> ,uh[uh[ mjpad; kfd; guhe;jfg; ngUkhs; vd;gtdplk; ePq;fs; NghUf;Fr; nry;tnjd;whNyh $l;L itj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vd;whNyh vd; xg;Gjiyg; ngw Ntz;Lk; vdr; Nrhod; $Wfpwhd;. Kw;nwhU fy;ntl;L> tpLfhjofpa ngUkhs; mNj rk;Gtuhad; KjypNahUld; nra;J nfhz;l xg;ge;jk;: Vw;fdNt ghu;jNjhk;. Fnyhj;Jq;fdplk; tpLfh jofpag; ngUkhs; kpfTk; neUf;fkhf ,Ue;Js;shd;. Mff; fp.gp. 12Mk; E}w;whz;by; tpLfhjofpa ngUkhs;> guhe;jfg; ngUkhs; vd;w ,U mjpakhd;fs; jq;fSf;Fs; xw;Wikapd;wp ,Ue;Js;sdu;.

     Nrhou; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd; mjpakhd;fs; gbg;gbahf kiwfpd;wdu;. mNj Neuj;jpy; Nghrsu;fs; vOr;rp ngWfpwhu;fs;.

jf^Uk; NghrsUk;

     Gypfb khmy; vd;w rq;f fhy kd;dupd; top te;jtuhfg; Nghrsiur; rpyu; Fwpg;gpLtu;. vdpDk; fp.gp. 13Mk; E}w;whz;by;> jf^upy; ,tu;fNs Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jp cs;sdu;. Fe;jhzpiaj; jiy efukhff; nfhz;L Mz;l ,tu;fs; fhyj;jpy; gy Nfhapy;fSf;Fj;jhdk; toq;fg;gl;ld. ,tu;fs; fhyj;jpy; jf^u;> jilf; Nfhl;Luhd ehdhNjrpg;gl;bdk; vd toq;fg;gl;lJ. Fnyhj;Jq;f Nrho jflhjuhad;> vd;ghd; ,tu;fs; fhyj;jpy; jf^upy; ,Ue;j mjpfhupahthd;.

jf^Uk; tp[aefug; NguurUk;

     Nghrsu; tPo;r;rp mile;j gpd; tp[a ejug; Ngiirpd;fPo; jf^u; tUfpwJ. ,k; kugpy; te;j gy kd;du;fs;> Nfhapy;fSf;F toq;fpa jhdq;fis ehk; ghu;f;f KbAk;. gy Nfhapy;fis ,tu;fSk; GJg;gpj;Js;sdu;. fp.gp. 1421,y; jf^u; ehl;Lf; filf;Nfhl;^iur; Nru;e;j ,uh[uh[P];tu Kila ehadhu;f;Fg; G+irf;Fk; jpUg;gzpf;Fkhfj; jf^u; ehl;il ehafk; nra;thdhfpa ,uhkehadhu; nghd;df; $j;jd; NkNyupapy; ed;nra; Gd;nra; epyk; toq;FtJld; gy tupfisAk; NfhapYf;fhf toq;Ffpwhd;. tPuNjt kfhuhad; fhyj;jpy; nghk;ika eha;f;fd; kfd; jpk;ika eha;f;fd; ed;ikf;fhf Ntz;b ,j; jhdk; nra;ag; ngWtjhff; fy;ntl;Lf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

     ,uhkf;fh Vup> ,td; ngaiunahl;b Vw;gl;bUf;fyhk;. ,uhkeha;f;fd; gl;b vd;w CUk; ,td; ngaiunahl;b Vw;gl;ljhFk;. ,uhk ehadhu; jf^iuahz;l mjpfhuahthd;. Kw;nwhU fy;ntl;L jpk;ika eha;f;fd; ed;ikf;fhf Ntz;b> jf^u; ehl;L ehafk; nra;gtdhfpa MNuhju; ,uhk ehadhUk; kw;Wk; ehl;ltUk; $b cijag; ngU khSf;Fj; jpUf;NfhGuk; GJg;gpj;Jj; jUfpd;wdu;. ,f; Nfhapy; gioa jUkGupapy; ,d;W cs;s eurpk;kg; ngUkhs; Nfhapy; MFk;. ,q;Fs;s NfhGuk; kpfr; rpwe;j NfhGukhfr; Nryk; khtl;l tptu E}y;fs; vOjpa midtUNk Fwpg;gpLfpd;wdu;. Nfhl;ilf; Nfhapy; ky;ypfhu;r;Rdu; vd;w tp[a efu muru; fhyj;jpy; fp.gp. 15Mk; E}w;whz;by; khw;wk; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

     tp[a efug; NguuR tPo;r;rpailAk; fhyj;jpy; kpfr; rpwe;j FWepy kd;du;fspy; xUtdhf tpsq;fpa n[fNjtpuhad; fhyj;jpy; jf^u;> jUkG vdg; ngau; khw;wk; ngw;wJ. Gy tpUJg; ngau;fSs; jUkuhrd; vd;gJk; ,tDf;F xU ngauhFk;. 12 ghu k`hy; Nfhl;ilfis vOg;gpajhff; $wg;gLk; n[fNjtpuhad; ,tNdNghYk;! ,tDila ngaupy; n[fNjtpJu;f;fKk; ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; cs;sJ.

n[fNjtpuhad;

     fp.gp. 16Mk; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpapy; n[fNjtprhad; kugpdu; FWepy kd;duhf cUthfp tp[a efug; Nguurpd; md;gpw;Fg; ghj;jpukhapdu;. fp.gp. 77,y; ngDnfhz;lh kPJ gP[g;G+u; Ry;jhd; myp Mjbd; gilnaLg;gpd;NghJ n[fNjtpuhad; tPur;nray; Gupe;J rPuq;fuhaupd; ngU kjpg;gpw;F Mshdhd;. mtd;> kd;dd; kfisAk; kze;J nfhz;lhd;. fp.gp. 1619,y; tpUghl;rpGuj;ijj; jhdk; nraj n[fNjtpuhaid tpUghl;rpGuk; rhrdk; Nghw;WfpwJ.

     ,td; fl;ba Nfhl;ilNa Mq;fpNyau;fs; Fwpg;gpLk; Nfhl;ilahFk;. ,f; Nfhl;il gpw;fhyj;jpy; ,bghLfSf;fhshdJ. jpU. nyghD vd;gtu; Nfhl;iliag; gw;wpf; $Wk;NghJ gioa Nfhl;ilf;F mUfpy; njw;fpy; ed;F jpl;lkpl;Lf; fl;lg;gl;ljhff; $Wfpwhu;. Nfhl;ilf; Nfhapy; mike;Js;s ,lNk Nfhl;ilahFk;.

     fp.gp. 17Mk; E}w;whz;bd; ,ilg; gFjpapy; gP[g;G+u; Ry;jhd; rek; ,f; Nfhl;il tUfpwJ. vdpDk; fp.gp. 1652,y; ik#u; cilahu; (fz;Bu;t eur uh[h gP[g;G+u; Ry;jhdplkpUe;J ifg;gw;wpf; nfhs;fpwhu;. gpd; mtuplkpUe;Jk; tpLgLfpwJ. vdpDk; fp.gp. 1688,y; ju;kGupia rpf;fNjtuhau; ifg;gw;Wfpwhu;. gpd;du;> ik#u; Mjpf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. vdpDk; IjUk; jpg;GTk; Nghupl;lNghJ> jUkGup Nfhl;il guhkupg;gtupd;wp rPu;Fiya Muk;gpj;jJ. Gy gFjpfspy; Kl;fs; kz;bd. fp.gp. 19Mk; E}w;whz;L Muk;gj;jpy; Vw;gl;l gQ;rj;jpd;NghJ df;fSf;F cjt epidj;j fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdp Nfhlilr; Rtu;jis ,bj;Jj; jiu kl;lkhf;Fk;gb $wpaJ. 1883NyNa Rtu;fs; ,y;iy vdj; jpU nyghD $Wfpwhu;. Nfhl;il ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; <];tud; Nfhapy;> fhkhl;rp Nfhapy;> guthRNjtu; Nfhapy;> nyg;bdd;l; fu;dy; N[k;]; Itprpd; vd;gtupd; fy;yiw Mfpait cs;sd.

     <];tud; NfhapYf;Fj; njw;fpy; Fg;igj; njhl;bahf ,g;nghOJ fhl;rp jUk; Nkil xd;W> cz;ikapy; N[k;]; ItprpDf;F mikf;fg;gl;l khjpahFk;. ,tu; kfpj;G+upy; tPu kuzk; mile;jrhu; vd;wwpfpNwhk;.

     jUkGup vd;w ngaUf;Fg; gjpy; NtW rpy ngau; fSk; ,f; fhyj;jpy; Njhd;wpdhYk; jUkGupNa epiyj;J tpl;lJ. jUk ey;Y}u;> tUzkhGup Nghd;w ngau;fis xiyr; Rtb Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. rpf;f fpU~;zuhad; vd;w ik#u; cilahu; fhyj;jpy; fp.gp. 1724,y; jUkGupg; Ngl;ilapy; fypjPu;j;j thj;jpahu; vd;w jz;lkpo;f; ftpQu; tho;e;Js;shu;. fp.gp. 1792 rPuq;fg;gl;bd cld;gbf;iff;Fg; gpd; jUkGup cs;spl;l ngUk;gFjp Mq;fpNyau; Ml;rpapd;fPo; te;jJ. vdpDk; ehd;fhk; ik#u; NghUf;F Kd; fpwp];j;Jt kjg;gpurhufu;fSf;Fk;> khjh Nfhapy;fSf;Fk; jpg;Gl;Ls;sdu;. jkpOk;> Mq;fpyKk;> gpnuQRk; mwpe;j ghjpupahu; mg;Ng J}Ng jUkGup te;J vspa tho;e;J jk; rkaj;ij tsu;j;jhu;. kf;fs; ,tiu me;Njhzp rhkpahu; vd mioj;jdu;. kd;Nwh md;w epu;thfpAk; kf;fshy; Nghw;wg;gl;Ls;shu;. mtUila epidthf epidTj;J}z; xd;W jUkGupapy; vOg;gp cs;sdu;.

ru; jhk]; kd;Nwh

     jUkGup efUld; NgupJk; njhlu;Gila ru; jhk]; kd;Nwh 1780Mk; Mz;L [dtup 15 Mk; Njjp nrd;idf;F te;jhu;. i`ju; mypia vjpu;j;j Mq;fpNyag; gilapy; cj;jpNahf];juhf ,Ue;jhu;. Nghupy; ntw;wp ngw;whu;. Rkhu; 12 Mz;Lfs; ,uhZtg; gzpapy;

     Kd;Nwh jUkGupapy; xU Fsk; ntl;bdhu; ,jw;G kd;Nwh rhg;Gf; Fsk; vd;W nghJ kf;fs; mioj;jdu;. mt;thNw mtu; cz;lhf;fpa Njhl;lk; kd;Nwh rhg;Gj; Njhl;lnkd;W toq;fg;gl;lJ.kd;Nwh FbapUe;j tPl;bd; milahsk; ,y;iynadpDk; Fsk; ,d;W cs;sJ. Nrhou; fhyf; fy;ntl;L gbf;fl;by; cs;sjhy; Vw;fdNt ,Ue;jFsj;ijg; GJg;gpf;Fk; gzpapy; kd;Nwh

     ,J kpfTk; uk;kpakhd Njhu; gpuNjrk;. ,t;tplj;jpy; cs;s xt;nthU kiyAk; kuKk; vdf;F ,d;gj;ijj; jUfpwJ. ehd; jUkGupapypUf;Fk;NghJ vy;yhk; ,j; Njhl;lj;jpy; xU kzp NeukhtJ fopj;J tUNtd;. ,t;tplj;ijtpl;L ,g;NghJ ehd; nry;y Ntz;bapUg;gij epidf;f ntF ehs; gofpa ez;gid tpl;Lg; gpupa Neu;e;jhy; vt;tpj ftiy cz;lhFNkh mj;jF ftiy cz;lhfpwJ.

     gpd;du; kd;Nwh ep[hk; je;j gFjpiag; gupghypj;J te;jhu;. 1898,y; jha;ehL nrd;W 1814y; jpUk;gp te;J nrd;id murhq;fj;jpy; gy rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; nra;jhu;. 1819,y; ,tu;Nk[u; n[duy; gl;lk; ngw;whu;. 1820,y; nrd;id ftu;duhdhu;. ,e;jpau;fSf;Fg; gy Ntiy tha;g;Gfs; nfhLj;jhu;. fy;tp tsu;r;rpf;Fg; ghLg;gl;lhu;. 1827 Mk; tUlk; [{iy 6Mk; Njjp fhykhdhu;. ,tuJ rpiy nrd;idapy; cs;sJ.

     kd;Nwh jtpu fu;dy; uPl;> fu;dy; Tl; `hu;fpNut; Nghd;w mjpfhupfs; jUkGupapy; tho;e;Js;shu;fs;. Fp.gp. 1808 Kjy; 1820 tiu Nryk; khtl;lj; jiyefukhf ,Ue;j jUkGup> gpwF khtl;lj; jiyefu; rpwg;ig ,we;jJ. vdpdDk; fp.gp. 1911 Kjy; Jiz khtl;l Ml;rpau; mYtyfj;ijf; nfhz;l efukhf tpsq;fpaJ. 2.10.1965 md;W Nryk; khtl;lk; ,uz;lhfg; gpupe;jNghJ jUkGup khtl;lj;jpd; jiyefukhfj; jUkGup cUthjpaJ. ,d;W khtl;lj;jpd; ngaUk; jiy efuj;jpd; ngaUk; jUkGup vd;Nw miof;fg;gLfpwJ. jUkGup efupy; Mq;fpNyaUf;Ff; fPo; gzpGupe;j ,e;jpa mjpfhup eur ma;auhthu;. mtu; ngaupy; eur Fsk; jUkGup efupy; ,d;W Ks;sJ. jPu;j;j fpup Kjypahu; vd;ghUk; jUkGupapy; gpwe;jtuhthu;.

     jw;NghJs;s jUkGup efuk; tpUghl;rpGuk;> nts;Ns fTz;ld; ghisak;> Fkhurhkpg; Ngl;il> md;d rhfuk;> kjpNfhd; ghisak; Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;ljhf cs;sJ. kjpNfhd; ghisak; ngau;> kjpnfl;lhd; ehlfj;jpy; tUk; jiytd; ngaupy; fp.gp. 17Mk; E}w;whz;by; Vw;gl;ljhFk;. Mt;thNw tpUghl;rpGuk;> md;drhfuk; Cu;g; ngau;fs; tp[a efu muru; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;lit vdyhk;. Tuyhw;Wf; fhyj;jpw;F Kd;Ng> jf^u; ehfupfk;> jiy> gz;ghL ,tw;wpy; rpwe;J ,Ue;Js;sJ. MfNt njhy;goq; fhyKk; jf^u; ehLk; vd;w jiyg;gpy; Ruf;fkhf Ma;T nra;J> gpd; eLfw;fs;> Xiyr; Rtbfs;> mUq;fhl;rpafk; Mfpatw;iw NkNyhl;lkhfg; ghu;j;Jtpl;L> jUkGupapy; cs;s Nfhapy;fis tpupthff; fhz;Nghk;.

Njhy; goq;fhyKk;

jf^u; ehLk;

     tuyhw;Wf; fhyk; vd;Wk; tuyhw;Wf;F Kw;gl;l fhynkd;Wk; tuyhw;iw Ma;thsu;fs; gpupg;ghu;fs;. vOj;Jr; rhd;Wfs; ,d;wp kf;fs; gad;gLj;jpa njhy; nghUs; rpd;dq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; tuhyhw;Wf;F Kw;gl;l fhy kf;fspd; tho;f;ifia mwpfpNwhk;. Jf^iug; nghWj;jtiu gioa fw;fhyf; fUtpfs; ,Jtiu fpilf;ftpy;iy. Mapd; fp.gp. 1916,y; ,uhgu;l; G&];G+l; vd;gtu; Gjpa fwfhyf; fUtpfis gU$upy; fz;nlLj;J> mq;Fg; Gjpa fw;fhyj; njhopw;rhiy ,e;jij ntspg;gLj;jpdhu;. Gpd;du; fg;gy;thb> tw;wy;kiy> %f;fD}u; kiy Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; nry;l; vdg;gLk; iff; Nfhlupfs; ngUkstpy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;ld. Gjpa fw;fhyf; fUtpfs; nra;ag; gad; gLk; grhy;l;> Nlhyiul; l;uhg;ilf; Kjyhd fw;fs; ,g;gFjpapy; kpFjpahf cs;sd.

     jUkGup khtl;lj;jpy; kl;Lkpd;wp tl Mu;f;fhL khtl;lk;> Nryk; khtl;lk;> kw;Wk; Me;jpuh> jUehlf khepyq;fspYk; Gjpa fw;fhyf; fUtpfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. kf;fs; Gjpa fw;fhyf; fUtpfis tl;lq;fshfNth> jdpf; Fj;Jf; fw;fshfNth epWj;jp tzq;Ffpd;wdu;. Rhd;whf mjid ,yspfk; vd;w Cupy; ,d;Wk; fhzyhk;. Gjpa fw;fhyf; fUtpfs; Ntl;ilf;F kl;Lkpd;wp epyj;ij mfoTk; gl;ld jUkGup khtl;lj;jpd; vy;iyg; gFjpapy; gad; mike;j igak;gs;sp mfotha;tpd; %yk; Gjpa fw;fhy kf;fspd; tho;f;ifg; gof;f tof;fq;fis ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;ld.

ngUq; fw;fhyk;

     cyf KOJk; ngUq; fw;fhyr; rpd;dq;fs; ,Ug;gpDk;> jkpo; ehl;by; Cuf;F Cu; gy;NtW tbtq;fsy; cs;sd. jUkGup kiyg; ghq;fhd gFjp vd;gNjhL fhLfs; kpFjpahf cs;sjhy; ngUq;fy; rpd;dq;fs; gyTk; mopahky; cs;;sd. fy;jpl;il> fy;gJf;if> Fj;Jf;fy;> eLfy;> fw;Fit> fw;fpil> kz;Fit> tl;lg; GijFop vdg; gy jd;ikfspy; ky;yg;ghb Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; ,tw;iwf; fhzyhk;.

ngUq;fw;fhy Xtpaq;fs;

    jkpo; ehl;by; Kjd; Kjyhfj; jUkGup khtl;lk; ky;yg;ghb vDk; Cupy;jhd; ngUq;fw;fhy xtpaq;fs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;ld. ,t; Nthtpaq;fisr; nrd;idg; gy;fiyf; fofj; njhy;ypay; Jiw fz;L gpbj;jJ. gpd;du; fpU~;zfpup> kfhuh[f;fil> ky;y rKj;jpuk; jhsg;gs;sp> Futp ehadg; gs;sp Kjypa Cu;fspy; ngUq;fw;fhy xtaq;fs; jkpofj; njhy;nghUs; Ma;Tj; Jiwahy; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;ld. Kiyf;Fiffspy; kl;Lkpd;wp fy;jpl;ilfspYk; ngUq;fw;fhy xtpaq;fs; cs;sd.

    gpuhk;kp vOj;J tz;zj;jpy; (xtpaj;jpy;) vOjg;gl;l fy;ntl;L kfhuh[f; fil kiy cr;rpapy; <];tud; ftp(Fif)apy; cs;sJ. jk;k njhgf;NfhldaQ fhkg;g vd mq;Fs;s fy;ntl;L jw;NghJ gbf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

    ngUq;fw;fhy xtpaq;fspy; ngUk;ghYk; nts;is tz;zNk gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. vdpDk; fhtpepwj;jpYk; (ky;yg;ghb) fUg;G epwj;jpYk; (kfhuh[f;fil) $l xtpaq;fs; jPl;lg;gl;Ls;sd.

    kfhuh[f;fil vDk; Cupy; fPo;f;fz;l Xtpaq;fs; cs;sd.

    mk;Gk; NflaKk; Ve;jpAs;s ,U Mltu; (Fl;ilahf xUtUk; caukhf xUtUk; cs;sdu;)

    Gyp> #upad;> jha;j; nja;tk; Nghd;w cUtk;> gpuig Nghd;w mikg;gpy; jPr;RthiyAld; $ba cUtk;> Fjpiu kPJ mku;e;j tPud;> fhl;Lg; gwit Mfpait jPl;lg;gl;Ls;d. gpuig Nghd;w jPr;Rthiy mf;fhyf; flTshf ,Uf;fyhk;.

    Ky;yg;ghbapy; Fjpiu kPJ mku;e;j tPud;> khd; cUtq;fisg; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. NkYk;> ky;y rKj;jpuj;jpy; Ntl;ilf; fhl;rpfs;> Foj; jiytd; Gyp kPJ mku;ejgb fhl;rp jUjy;> rpe;J rkntspapy; fhzg;gLk; rpy FwpaPLfs;> mr;Rf; Fj;jg;gl;l fhRfspy; fhzg;gLk; rpy FwpaPLfs; Kjypatw;iwg; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. fpU~;zfpup kiyapy; cs;s xtpaq;fs; FO ehl;baj;ijAk; gwit Ntl;iliaAk; czu;j;Jfpd;wd. jkpo; ehl;by; Ntnwq;Fk; gwit Ntl;il xtpakpy;iy vdyhk;.

    ngUq;fw;fhy xtpaq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; rpy FwpaPLfs;> rpy ghid xLfspy; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. gujd; vdj; jkpo; vOj;jpy; $ba ghid xL xd;W flj;J}u; fpU. Ntq;fl;uhkdplk; cs;sJ.

    Futp ehadg; gs;spapy; fpilj;j 5 fhy;fis cila kz;[hb fUg;G tz;zj;jpy; xtpaj;Jld; fhzg;gLfpwJ. KJkf;fs; jhop> kJr;rhb> kw;Wk; ,Uk;Gg; nghUl;fs; ngUq;fy; rpd;dq;fspy; kpFjpahff; fpilf;fpd;wd. jpU. Eurpk;ikah vd;ghu; jUkGup khtl;lj;ij tpupthf Ma;T nra;J ngUq;fy; rpd;d Ma;T Fwpj;J E}nyhd;W vOjpAs;shu;. jf^u; khtl;l tuyhw;Wg; NguitAk; njhy; nghUs; Ma;Tj; JiwAk; ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; fz;nlLj;j ngUq; fw;fhy njhy; nghUl;fisr; Nrfpj;J jf^u; mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy; itj;Js;sd. tz;zj;jpy; $ba xtpaq;fs; kl;Lkpd;wp ghiwapy; Nfhl;Lutk; vd;w epiyapYk; ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; ngUq;fw;fhy xtpaq;fs; cs;sd. ngd;dhfuk; mLj;j VupA+upy; Nfhl;Lut xtpaj;ij ,d;Wk; kiy kPJ fhzyhk;. mUfpy; tl;lg;Gij Fopfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

eLfw;fs;

    ,we;j tPuu;fSf;Ff; fy; el;L topgLtJ rq;ffhy tof;fkhFk;. ngUq;fw; fhyj;jpNyNa eLfw;fs; Njhd;wptpl;ld vdeyhk;. cUtk; VJk;kw;w jdpf; fy;Ny eLfy;yhf ,Ue;J gpd; cUtKk; vOj;Jk; gbg;gbahf tsu;r;rp mile;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

fhl;rp fhy;Nfhs; ePu;g;gil eLjy; rPu;j;jF kugpd; ngUk;gil tho;j;jnyd;W ,U%d;W tifapz fy;nyhL Gwu

    vdj; njhy;fg;fpau; Fwpg;gpLthu;.

    ehsiltpy; jdpf; fy;Yf;Fg; gjpy; neL epiy eLfy; my;yJ fy;tPL ngUfpaJ. ,j;jF neL epiy eLfw;fspy; ,we;Jgl;l tPudpd; cUtj;ijAk; mtDld; njhlu;Gilatw;iwAk; Xtpakhf tiue;jdu;. rq;f fhyj;jpy; eLfy; vd;gJ XtpakhfNt ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ngUq; fw;fhy fy;jpl;ilfspy; fhzg;gLk; Xtpaq;fs; eLfy; topghl;ilf; Fwpg;gpl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. gy;ytu; fhye;njhlq;fp Xtpaj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; rpw;gkhf eLfy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. vOj;Jf;fSk; nghwpf;fg;gl;ld. nghJthfj; jkpo; ehl;bNyNa eLfw;fs; jUkGup khtl;lj;jpy; jhd; kpFjpahf cs;sd. E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd eLfw;fis ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; ghu;f;fpNwhk;. jkpo; kw;Wk; tl;nlOj;jpy; ,e;j eLfw;fs; cs;sd. jkpopy; kl;Lkpd;wp fd;dlk; kw;Wk; njYq;F nkhopfspYk; eLfw;fs; ,k;khtl;lj;jpy; gy eLfw;fs; fhl;rpg; nghUs;fshf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. eLfw;fs; kl;Lkpd;wp gd;wpf;Fj;jpg;gl;lhd; vd;gd Nghd;w tPu eLfw;fSk; ,k;khtl;lj;jpy; cs;sd. ,it fy;ntl;LlDk; fy;ntl;bd;wpAk; cs;sd.

fhRfs;

    rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpah KotJk; cr;Rf; Fj;jg;gl;l fhRfs; tof;fpy; ,Ue;Js;sd. ,e;jpahtpy; gy khepyq;fspy; mr;Rf; Fj;jg;gl;l nts;spf; fhRfs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;ld. jkpo; ehl;by; gy khtl;lq;fspy; mr;Rf; Fj;jg;gl;l fhRfSk; cNuh khdpa fhRfSk; rq;f fhy Nru Nrho> ghz;ba> kiyakhd; fhRfSk; fpilj;Js;sd. mr;Rf; Fj;jg;gl;l fhRfs; vz;zpf;ifapy; FiwthfNt fpilj;Js;sd. MapDk; jUkGup khtl;lk; etiy fpuhkj;jpy; 335 mr;Rf;Fj;jg;gl; nts;spf; fhRfs; gy;NtW tbtq;fspy; fpilj;Js;sd. cNuhkhdpa vOj;Jf;fSk; cUtq;fSk; rpy fhRfspy; nghwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,it fs;f; fhRfshapUj;jy; $Lk;> vd;W lhf;lu; ,uh. Ehfrhkp mtu;fs; fUj;Jj; njuptpj;Js;shu;. ehzatpay; mwpQu;fSf;F tpag;ig Al;Lk; mf;fs;s ehzaq;fs; cNuhkhdpau;fs; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw nra;J ntspapl;litahFk;. ,f;fhRfs; fs;s ehzakh? ,y;iyah? vd;gJ Fwpj;J Ca;thsu;fspilNa tpthfNk epfo;e;Js;sJ.

    gy;ytu; fhyj;ijr; Nru;e;j fhRfSk;> Nrho> ghz;ba> fq;f> tp[a efu kw;Wk; FWepy muru; fspd; fhRfSk; ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; kpFjpahff; fpilj;Js;sd. ,J tiu Nrfupf;fg;gl;l goq;fhyf; fhRfspy; nts;spAld; nghw;fhRfSk; nrk;Gf; fhRfSk; mlq;Fk;. jUkGup tuyhw;iw vOj ,f;fhRfs; ngupJk; cjtpahf cs;sd. Nrfupf;fg;gl;l goq;fhyf; fhRfs;> mUq; fhl;rpafj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. fhRfs; kl;Lkpd;wp> Ik;Nghd; rpiyfSk; mt;tg;NghJ fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

Xiyr; Rtbfs;

    jUkGup khtl;lj;jpy; vz;zw;w xiyr; Rtbfs; jdpg;gl;ltu;fsplk; cs;sd. tuyhW> ,yf;fpak;> itj;jpak;> Nrhjplk; Nghd;w gy Jiwfis mr;Rtbfs; nfhz;Ls;sd. fp.gp. 17Mk; E}w;whz;by; jUkGupapy; ebf;fg; ngw;w kjpnfl;lhd; ehlfk; vd;gJ Ritahd xd;whFk;. Mt;thNw gpufyhj rupj;jpuk;> fpU~;z ehlfk;> khu;f;fz;Nla ehlfk; vd;git Fwpg;gplj;jf;fd vdyhk;. Khu;f;fz;Nla ehlfk; jkpo;g; ghly;fSld; jkpopy; vOjpa tLFg; ghly;fisAk; nfhz;ljhf cs;sJ.

    Nfhapy; jyGuhzq;fisf; $Wk; rpy RtbfSk; ,tw;wpy; cs;sd. rpwe;j Rtbfs; jUkGup mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy; nghUshf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Xiyapy; kl;Lkpd;wp Jzpapy; vOjg;gl;l MtzKk; mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy; cs;sd. ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l gy nrg;NgLfspd; thapyhfj; jUkGupapd; goq;fhy tuyhW NkYk; tsf;fkhfpwJ. FatUf;Fk; jPu;j;j kiyf;Fk; cs;s njhlu;igf; fhNtupg; gl;lzk; Fyhyu; Nfhapypy; cs;s nrg;G gl;lak; tpsf;FfpwJ. Jtpu ntsp cyFf;Fj; njupahky; rpy nrg;NgLfs; jdpahu; trk; cs;sd. mit Ma;thsu;f;Ff; fpilj;jhy; jUkGupapd; tuyhW NkYk; njspthFk;.

elfk;> tpohf;fs;

    ,k; khtl;lj;jpy; gy ,lq;fspy; njhYq;fpYk; ehlfq;fs; elf;fpd;wd. Guhjd fiyfisf; fpuhk kf;fs; Nghw;wp tUfpd;whu;fs;. kz;L tpoh vd;gJ goq;fhyj; njhlq;fp ,d;W tiu rpy fpuhkq;fspy; elj;jg; ngWfpd;wd. kd;W vd;gNj kd;L vd khwpAs;sJ. ngUe; nja;tq;fshfpa rpt> tp~;Z topghl;ilf; fhl;bYk; rW nja;t topghNl> Fwpg;ghf eLfy; topghL my;yJ fpuhkNjtij topghNl ,k;khtl;lj;jpy; kpFjpahf eil ngWfpwJ. Rq;f E}yhd GwehD}Wk; eLfy; topghl;il cau;thff; $WfpwJ.

jUkGup mUq;fhl;rpafk;

    jUkGup NgUe;J epiyaj;jpd; mUfpy; njhy;nghUs; Ma;Tj; Jiw mUq;fhl;rpafk; mike;J cs;sJ. jUkGup khtl;lj;jpy; Nrfupf;fg;gl;l eLfw;fs;> njhy; nghUl;fs;> fhRfs;> Xiyr; Rtbfs;> Nghd;wit fhl;rpg; nghUs;fshf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

    ,t;tUq; fhl;rpafk; Fwpj;Jj; jdpahf ifNaL ntspapl cs;sjhy; ,q;F tpupthff; $wtpy;iy. jUkGup khtl;l Ml;rpj; jiytuhf ,Ue;j jpU. rptRg;gpukzpak; mtu;fsJ Kaw;rpahYk; ,t;tUq; fhl;rpafk; cUthapw;W. mt;thNw jUkGupapy; tho;e;j jkpo;g; GytUf;F toq;fpa jhdj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLk; xiyr; Rtb je;j ,yl;rg; gpuG vd;w gs;sp khztidAk; ,q;F Fwpg;gpl;Lg; ghuhl;l Ntz;Lk;. ,dp mr; rhrd;j;ijf; fhz;Nghk;.

jUkGupapy; tho;e;j jkpo;f; ftpQu;.

    jkpo;ehL muR njhy;nghUs; Ma;Tj;Jiw jUkGup mUIq;fhl;rpafk;> jUkGupapy; 5 Vlfisf; nfhz;l tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;G tha;e;j Xiyr;Rtbiar; Nrfupj;jJ. jUkGup mjpakhd; Nky;epiyg; gs;spapy; Vohk; tFg;G fbj;j khztd; ,yl;rg;gpuG Nkw;fz;l Rtbia vd;dplk; toq;fpdhd;. ,r;Rtbiag; gbj;J Ma;T nra;Njd;. fp.gp. 1747y; jUkGupapy; tho;e;j thzpf itrpa